The fresh ionic hypothesis regarding hypertension and other metabolic disorders because of the Resnick 66 try described as the next: 1) increased intracellular totally free calcium supplements and you may shorter intracellular free magnesium influence the fresh level of vasoconstriction or vasodilatation 66 ; 2) raised glucose and you can reasonable-density lipoprotein cholesterol opinions boost intracellular calcium supplements and you can/or down intracellular magnesium for the vascular smooth muscle tissue structure 68 ; 3) blood circulation pressure, insulin resistance, and type II all forms of diabetes mellitus was of this improved intracellular calcium supplements and you will reduced intracellular magnesium, and that most of the answer weight reduction 69 ; 4) fat loss plus reduces intracellular calcium accounts 70 ; 5) weight-loss calcium supplements-suppressible hormones such parathyroid hormonal (PTH) and you can step one,25 supplement D was vasoactive and you can bring calcium supplements uptake within the vascular simple muscle tissue and you may cardiac muscle mass 71 ; 6) the better the latest PTH attention, the greater amount of the latest reduction of BP, together with deeper new loss of PTH and you may step 1,twenty five nutritional D, the greater number of the new BP cures 72 ; 7) people with sodium-sensitive and painful and you may calcium supplements-painful and sensitive blood pressure level has increased intracellular calcium PTH and you may 1,twenty-five vitamin D, but lowest intracellular magnesium 73 ; 8) weight loss calcium supplements reverses irregular calcium indices and you may lowers BP 74 ; 9) dieting potassium decreases urinary calcium supplements excretion and you will step 1,25 nutritional D plasma accounts 75 ; and you can 10) magnesium intake reduces tissues calcium supplements accumulation. 76
Basically, the general aftereffect of eating plan on BP depends upon brand new internet share of various nourishment for the cytosolic 100 % free nutritional elements particularly potassium, calcium, and you can magnesium. Steady-county mineral concentrations are determined from the both lead ionic consequences into the sugar otherwise calcium additionally the ionic effects toward hormonal (PTH, step 1,25 nutritional D). 72 A discussion of some additional health-related outcomes of individuals vitamins towards BP try has just claimed from the Log out of Medical Hypertension. 77
The average US dietary intake of potassium is 45 mEq/d with a potassium-to-sodium ratio of <1:2. 78 This is less than the recommended intake of 4700 mg/d (121 mEq/d) of potassium, with a potassium/sodium ratio of >5:1. Low potassium intake in the United States is considered a contributor to the prevalence of hypertension. 27 Therefore, if Americans were able to increase their potassium intake alone, the number of adults with known hypertension might decrease. As data from TOHP, 35 PREMIER, 79 and the Trial of Preventing Hypertension (TROPHY) 80 indicate, lifestyle changes such as weight loss, salt restriction, increased exercise, and dietary changes may prevent the progression to hypertension. The results of the DASH studies further indicate that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is important for the prevention of hypertension and major public health problems such as coronary heart disease and stroke. An increase in potassium with a decrease in sodium is probably the most important dietary choice (after weight loss) that should be implemented to reduce CVD. Unfortunately, the population that could most benefit from increased potassium, magnesium, and calcium in the diet may have the least access to these more expensive food types (fruits and vegetables).
Article service was financed because of the Unilever’s Guarantee Institute to possess Cardiovascular health Nutrition together with writers gotten an honorarium, funded by Unilever’s Guarantee Institute to own Heart health Nutrition, to possess perseverance invested making preparations this article.
Indicate systolic and you may diastolic blood circulation pressure from the standard and you will during for each and every intervention few days, centered on diet, to possess 379 clients with complete categories of each week hypertension specifications. Reprinted which have consent of Appel mais aussi al. ten
Numerous meta-analyses twenty-five-28 statement a life threatening reduced BP having potassium supplementation (Dining table I). An early on meta-analysis by the Cappuccio and you can MacGregor twenty-five out-of 19 systematic examples examining the result away from potassium supplementation to the BP unearthed that dental potassium capsules notably lower both systolic BP and diastolic BP (5.nine mm Hg and you can step three.cuatro mm avvisto incontri buddisti Hg, respectively). Some other meta-study away from 33 randomized regulated examples (RCTs)26 including documented one potassium supplementation significantly paid down BP. The BP-decreasing impact was alot more noticable in the blacks in contrast to whites and you can people taking a nourishment filled up with salt chloride. Like with the last meta-analyses, the brand new BP reaction are better inside the hypertensive than normotensive customers (step 3.5/2.5 mm Hg compared to 0.97/0.34 mm Hg, respectively), which had been out-of borderline mathematical value. An excellent meta-data from regarding forty sodium products and you can twenty seven potasisum samples by the Geleijnse ainsi que al. twenty seven in addition to indicated that a lowered consumption out of salt and you can improved consumption of potassium are important members on cures away from hypertension. Yet not, a more recent meta-research of five RCTs, conducted because of the Dickinson and lovers, twenty-eight reported that potassium supplementation contributed to statistically nonsignificant decreases in one another systolic BP (step 3.nine mm Hg) and you may diastolic BP (1.5 mm Hg). It needs to be appreciated that specific training that have potassium supplements have been out of short course and incorporated quick variety of professionals.